Journal of Haematology and Stem Cell Research 2021-02-01T06:59:33+00:00 Nadir Ali Open Journal Systems <p><em>Journal of Haematology and Stem Cell Research (JHSCR)</em> is an official journal of Pakistan Society of Haematology. It is a double blind double peer-reviewed being published biannual journal that delivers the premier quality peer-reviewed open access original research articles, reviews, and scholarly comment on pioneering efforts and innovative studies in the medical treatment of blood disorders. The journal has a strong clinical and pharmacological focus and is aimed at an international audience of clinicians and researchers in hematology and related disciplines, providing an online forum for rapid dissemination of recent research and perspectives in this area.</p> Haematological Biomarkers in Covid-19 Infection 2021-01-31T17:01:44+00:00 Nadeem Ikram 2021-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Bone Marrow Oxalosis in a Two Year Old Child with Congenital Hypoplastic Kidneys – A Case Report 2021-02-01T06:39:37+00:00 Sundas Ali Javera Tariq Aliena Sohail Humaira Rizwan <p>Oxalate deposition in different extra-renal tissues resulting in systemic involvement is called as systemic oxalosis. The urinary tract, including renal parenchyma, is the first deposition site followed by extra-renal organs, for instance, bone marrow. Bone marrow oxalosis is described by hepatosplenomegaly, deranged cell lines, i.e., cytopenias, leukoerythroblastosis, and calcium oxalate crystals in bone marrow biopsy. We are reporting a case of a 2 years old child with&nbsp; Chronic Kidney Disease and a history of congenital hypoplastic kidneys. The patient had mild pallor and features of renal osteodystrophy at the time of presentation. A bone marrow biopsy was performed that showed interstitial deposition of oxalate crystals and preserved trilineage hematopoietic constituents in the absence of peripheral cytopenias.</p> 2021-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Haematology and Stem Cell Research Molecular Diagnosis of Genetic Haemoglobin Disorders 2021-01-31T17:20:07+00:00 Suhaib Ahmed 2021-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Frequency and Pattern of Bacterial & Fungal Infections in Neutropenic Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Transplantation 2021-01-31T17:23:24+00:00 Muhammad Arshad Jehanzeb Rehman Qamar Un Nisa Chaudry Hafiz Muhammad Nadeem Zainab Akram Ghassan Umair <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the frequency and pattern of bacterial &amp; fungal infections in neutropenic patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The descriptive study was conducted in clinical hematology &amp; stem cell transplant department, AFBMTC/NIBMT, Rawalpindi from 1/1/2019 to 31/12/2019. A total of 84 patients were observed. All patients were monitored six hours for neutropenic fever. Blood samples were taken with aseptic technique for bacterial &amp; fungal cultures in these patients. Serum galactomannan and beta-D glucan tests were carried out in patients with suspected fungal infection. Chest X-Ray was done for lower respiratory tract infection. These infections were categorized as primary bloodstream infections or secondary bloodstream infections as per operational definitions.&nbsp; Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of the 84 patients, 68 (80.9%) patients fulfilled the criteria for primary or secondary bloodstream neutropenic infections. The median age of the study population was 8 years (SD ± 1.25). Seventy-one percent of patients were male and 29% of patients were female. Ninety-three percent of patients had a bacterial infection, while 7% of patients had a fungal infection. Fifty-six patients had primary bloodstream infections while 12 patients had secondary bloodstream infections. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa &amp; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were the most common bacteria isolated from cultures. Out of 12 patients who had secondary bloodstream infections, 8(12%) patients had radiological findings (consolidations, opacities) while 4(6%) patients had positive serum galactomannan.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our study concludes that bacterial infections are more common than fungal infections in neutropenic patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Klebsiella pneumonia is the most common pathogen in pre-engraftment neutropenic phase.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Platelets Indices as Biomarkers of Glycemic Control and Progression of Complications in Patients of Diabetes Mellitus Type II 2021-01-31T17:46:13+00:00 Shahzad Ali Jiskani Dolat Singh <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The main objective of this study was to analyze various platelet parameters among diabetes mellitus type patients (without and with complications) and controls.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> It was a prospective, cross sectional study, carried out at Dept. of Pathology and Dept. of Medicine, Indus Medical College Hospital, Tando Muhammad Khan. Complete blood count (CBC), serum glucose levels, and HbA1c were evaluated. All participants were divided into three groups: Group 1: Normal Controls (n=35); Group 2: DM type II patients without complications (n=35); and Group 3: DM type 2 with complications (n=35). Patients were also categorized as good and poor glycemic control (HbA1c &lt;7% and HbA1c &gt;7% respectively). All data variables were analyzed with SPSS 21.0. ANOVA test was applied to see the significant correlation. P value of &lt;0.05 was considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All platelet parameters including mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet – large cell ratio, platelet distribution width (PDW), and plateletcrit and were significantly altered among patients of DM type 2 with complications as compared to other groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study demonstrated higher platelet indices among diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. Our results postulated simple and cost – effective tool for monitoring of progression of complications in diabetic mellitus type 2 patients.</p> 2021-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Types of Acute Leukemia in Children Aged 5-18 years Presenting to A Tertiary Care Hospital in Northern Pakistan 2021-01-31T17:53:16+00:00 Ansa Kulsoom Rehman Shahtaj Khan Sundus Iftekhar <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To identify the common types of acute leukemias in children aged 5-18 years presenting to Tertiary Care Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The descriptive cross-sectionally designed with a consecutive sampling technique study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from 1st April-30th September 2017. The main outcome measures will be the classification of acute leukemia in children aged 5-18 years presenting to Tertiary Care Hospital. A total of three hundred &amp; eighty-nine (n=389) patients were recruited for our study. After informed consent from parents of children, detailed clinical history and examination were carried out. Blood counts were performed on an automated haematology analyzer (Sysmex XN-450). Peripheral blood and bone marrow smears were stained with Giemsa and myeloperoxidase stain. Trephine biopsies were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Findings of bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsies were interpreted in the light of history, clinical examination, and peripheral blood findings. FAB classification of acute leukemias was applied for sub-typing.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among 389 patients, 80% (n=311) had acute lymphoblastic leukemia, while 20% (n=78) had acute myeloid leukemia.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is more prevalent in children aged 5-18 years, compared to acute myeloid leukemia.</p> 2021-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Frequency of TTIs in Apparently Healthy Blood Donors in Sialkot District, A Small District of Punjab-Pakistan with Big Reservoir of TTIs 2021-01-31T18:04:46+00:00 Sidra Ghazanfer Hasan Osman <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis, and malarial parasite (MP) in district blood banks of Sialkot; and to compare it with national and international data.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This Descriptive study was conducted between January 2013 to September 2019 at Allama Iqbal Memorial Teaching Hospital (AIMTH), Sialkot, Government Sardar Begum Hospital (GSBH), Sialkot and District Headquarter (DHQ) Hospital, Daska. All donors were between 18-60 years of age, weighed above 50 kgs and their Hemoglobin was above 12g/dl. Donors with physical disabilities and/or having co- morbid conditions were excluded from the study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In a span of 7 years a total of 84,305 blood donations were acquired collectively in all the three hospitals. In AIMTH, 54,630 donations were made, among which HCV positive cases were 1.70% (n=926), HBV positive cases were 1.25% (n=682), HIV positive were 0.01% (n=6), syphilis positive were 0.75% (n=408) and MP positive cases were only 0.01% (n=4). In GSBH, a total of 14,402 donations were made. Among them HCV positive were 1.25% (n=180), HBV positive were 0.80% (n=115), HIV positive were 0.02% (n=3), syphilis positive cases were equal to 0.35% (n=50), while MP positive 0.01% (n=1). In DHQ Hospital-Daska, total number of donations was 15,273, among which HCV positive were 1.16% (n=177), HBV positive were 0.88% (n=134), HIV positive cases were reported to be 0.01% (n=1), syphilis positive 0.59% (n=90) and MP positive were 0.03% (n=5). Collectively, among the total 84,305 donations made in all three hospitals, HCV positive were 1.52% (n=1283), HBV positive were 1.10% (n=931), HIV positive were 0.01% (n=10), syphilis was found positive in 0.65% (n=548) and MP positive were 0.01% (n=10).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The incidence of TTIs transmission can be decreased by improving donor screening techniques. Better techniques will also filter-out more potentially hazardous donors by which improvement in transfusion service quality can be achieved.</p> 2021-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Trace, Track and Treat Syphilis Positive Blood Donors; Way Forward to Effectively Reduce STI 2021-01-31T18:09:29+00:00 Sana Hanif Tuba Farhat Ayesha Junaid Jahangir Adil <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Counselling of syphilis positive blood donors, to educate them about the disease, its consequences and management</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In this descriptive study was conducted at the Blood bank of a private tertiary care hospital in Islamabad from September 2019 till September 2020. Blood donors (n=11,122) were evaluated for the presence of antibodies to treponema pallidum. Initially, all blood donors were screened for syphilis by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay to detect Treponemal pallidum (TP) antibodies. The positive test was repeated twice and was considered authentic if seropositivity was found two out of three times. All infected blood products were discarded. The donors were traced with their phone numbers. Each positive donor was contacted thrice on three different occasions if they did not respond. The ones who responded were informed, counselled and also referred to an infectious disease clinic, while taking care of confidentiality.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Sero-prevalence of syphilis donors was 0.8%. Seventy eight of the reactive donors were first time donors. All of them were replacement donors.</p> <p>All donors who were reactive for antibodies were males, and the majority (42.7%) of them were between the ages 36 to 45years. Out of total 89 syphilis positive donors, only 59 responded, 30 (33.7%) did not respond or gave wrong numbers. Only 6 (0.07%) positive donors came to collect their report, and subsequently took treatment after they were informed. Six donors reactive for syphilis antibodies had a history of travel abroad in the last two years. Out of 59 seropositive donors who responded, only 3 had a history of either a skin rash, swollen lymph nodes or fever.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Syphilis positive donors need tracing and counseling, as the majority of sero-positive cases did not turn up to collect reports and receive treatment. Blood bank staff should be trained to identify high-risk behavior through history, while giving confidence to the donor regarding confidentiality.</p> 2021-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Cisplatin and Oncolytic Adenoviral Vector Co-Treatment Induces Synergistic Proliferation Inhibitory Effects in Breast Cancer Cells 2021-01-31T18:13:11+00:00 Muhammad Tahir Abdul Rehman Adeel Riaz <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To investigate the proliferation inhibitory effects of Cisplatin, CRAd mono, or Cis-CRAd combined therapy in MCF-10 breast cancer cells.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In this prospective cohort study tumor inhibition activity of cisplatin, CRAd alone, and in combination, was studied. Breast cancer cells MCF-10 (ATCC, CRL-10317) were obtained from ATCC. These were cultured and propagated following the standard procedures.Cell viability assay and flow cytometry-based assay were used to measure the tumor cell growth inhibition, apoptosis induction, and cell cycle arresting ability of both anti-cancer agents in breast tumor cells. Further, the mRNA expression of p53 and its downstream target genes responsible for apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest measured by RT-qPCR.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Combined therapy with Cisplatin-CRAd significantly inhibited the cell growth, induced apoptosis, and blocked G2-M phase cell cycle transition in breast cancer cells. The mRNA expression analysis of p53 and its downstream genes responsible for apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest was found out to be elevated in treated breast tumor cells.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Cisplatin, if used in combination with other competent and non-toxic anti-cancer agents like CRAd, can produce better anti-cancer effects at low doses. The results of this study indicate such a combined treatment approach may be investigated in animal models then at the clinical level.</p> 2021-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Message by President PSH for Inaugural Issue 2021-02-01T05:54:33+00:00 Parvez Ahmed 2021-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Haematology and Stem Cell Research Inaugural Issue of ‘Journal of Haematology and Stem Cell Research’ 2021-02-01T06:59:33+00:00 Khalid Hassan 2021-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Haematology and Stem Cell Research